KEY THERAPEUTIC AREAS

Children who have different chronic illness diagnoses (autism, asthma, allergies, ADHD, obesity, autoimmunity, mood disorders, etc.) actually share similar disturbances in immune and metabolic function, nutritional status and toxic body burden. We hypothesize that intensive multivariate longitudinal laboratory tracking of our study participants will reveal problems at the levels of inflammatory markers, markers of mitochondrial dysfunction, markers of oxidative stress, disturbances of bioenergetics, methylation and lipid metabolism and gastrointestinal microbiome imbalance that are diagnosis non-specific and have commonalities across participants. There is ample literature supporting links across disease categories.

ADHD/ADD

Archer T, Kostrzewa RM. Physical exercise alleviates ADHD symptoms: regional deficits and development trajectory. Neurotox Res. 2012;21(2):195-209.

Bazar KA, Yun AJ, Lee PY, Daniel SM, Doux JD. Obesity and ADHD may represent different manifestations of a common environmental oversampling syndrome: a model for revealing mechanistic overlap among cognitive, metabolic, and inflammatory disorders. Med Hypotheses. 2006;66(2):263-9.

Bernfort L, Nordfeldt S, Persson J. ADHD from a socio-economic perspective. Acta Paediatr. 2008;97(2):239-45.

Fletcher J, National Bureau of Economic Research. The effects of childhood ADHD on adult labor market outcomes. Cambridge, MA: National Bureau of Economic Research; 2013. 25 p. p.

Gadow KD, Roohi J, DeVincent CJ, Kirsch S, Hatchwell E. Association of COMT (Val158Met) and BDNF (Val66Met) gene polymorphisms with anxiety, ADHD and tics in children with autism spectrum disorder. J Autism Dev Disord. 2009;39(11):1542-51.

Giustra-Kozek J. Healing without hurting: treating ADHD, apraxia, and autism spectrum disorders naturally and effectively without harmful medication. Howard Beach, NY: Changing Lives Press; 2014. xiii, 370 p. p.

Guyol G. Who’s crazy here?: Steps for recovery without drugs for: ADD/ADHD, addiction & eating disorders, anxiety & PTSD, depression, bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, autism. 1st U.S. ed. Stonington, CT: Ajoite Pub.; 2010. 123 p. P.

McCarthy S, Cranswick N, Potts L, Taylor E, Wong IC. Mortality associated with attentiondeficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) drug treatment: a retrospective cohort study of children, adolescents and young adults using the general practice research database. Drug Saf. 2009;32(11):1089-96.

Sabuncuoglu O. Understanding the relationships between breastfeeding, malocclusion, ADHD, sleep-disordered breathing and traumatic dental injuries. Med Hypotheses. 2013;80(3):315-20.

Verlaet AA, Noriega DB, Hermans N, Savelkoul HF. Nutrition, immunological mechanisms and dietary immunomodulation in ADHD. Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2014;23(7):519-29.

Wigal SB, Emmerson N, Gehricke JG, Galassetti P. Exercise: applications to childhood ADHD. J Atten Disord. 2013;17(4):279-90.

 

ATOPIC CONDITIONS ASTHMA/ALLERGIES

Arnold D, Jones BL. Personalized medicine: a pediatric perspective. Curr Allergy Asthma Rep. 2009;9(6):426-32.

Back O, Blomquist HK, Hernell O, Stenberg B. Does vitamin D intake during infancy promote the development of atopic allergy? Acta Derm Venereol. 2009;89(1):28-32.

Bisgaard H, Vissing NH, Carson CG, Bischoff AL, Folsgaard NV, Kreiner-Moller E, et al. Deep phenotyping of the unselected COPSAC2010 birth cohort study. Clin Exp Allergy. 2013;43(12):1384-94.

Biltagi MA, Baset AA, Bassiouny M, Kasrawi MA, Attia M. Omega-3 fatty acids, vitamin C and Zn supplementation in asthmatic children: a randomized self-controlled study. Acta Paediatr. 2009;98(4):737-42.

Brown SD, Baxter KM, Stephenson ST, Esper AM, Brown LA, Fitzpatrick AM. Airway TGFbeta1 and oxidant stress in children with severe asthma: association with airflow limitation. Allergy Clin Immunol. 2012;129(2):388-96, 96 e1-8.

Brussino L, Badiu I, Sciascia S, Bugiani M, Heffler E, Guida G, et al. Oxidative stress and airway inflammation after allergen challenge evaluated by exhaled breath condensate analysis. Clin Exp Allergy. 2010;40(11):1642-7.

Buehring B, Viswanathan R, Binkley N, Busse W. Glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis: an update on effects and management. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2013;132(5):1019-30.

Bunyavanich S, Schadt EE. Systems biology of asthma and allergic diseases: a multiscale approach. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2015;135(1):31-42.

Bunyavanich S, Rifas-Shiman SL, Platts-Mills TA, Workman L, Sordillo JE, Gillman MW, et al. Peanut allergy prevalence among school-age children in a US cohort not selected for any disease. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2014;134(3):753-5.

Campbell DE, Boyle RJ, Thornton CA, Prescott SL. Mechanisms of Allergic Disease – Environmental and genetic determinants for the development of allergy. Clin Exp Allergy. 2015.

Chauhan BF, Chartrand C, Ducharme FM. Intermittent versus daily inhaled corticosteroids for persistent asthma in children and adults. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2013;2:CD009611.

Checkley W, Robinson CL, Baumann LM, Hansel NN, Romero KM, Pollard SL, et al. 25-hydroxy vitamin D levels are associated with childhood asthma in a population-based study in Peru. Clin Exp Allergy. 2015 Jan;45(1):273–82.

Dahl R. Systemic side effects of inhaled corticosteroids in patients with asthma. Respir Med. 2006;100(8):1307-17.

D’Auria E, Miraglia Del Giudice M, Barberi S, Mandelli M, Verduci E, Leonardi S, et al. Omega-3 fatty acids and asthma in children. Allergy Asthma Proc. 2014;35(3):233-40.

da Costa Baptista IP, Accioly E, de Carvalho Padilha P. Effect of the use of probiotics in the treatment of children with atopic dermatitis; a literature review. Nutr Hosp. 2013;28(1):16-26.

Della Giustina A, Landi M, Bellini F, Bosoni M, Ferrante G, Onorari M, et al. Vitamin D, allergies and asthma: focus on pediatric patients. World Allergy Organ J. 2014;7(1):27.

Desai JR, Wu P, Nichols GA, Lieu TA, O’Connor PJ. Diabetes and asthma case identification, validation, and representativeness when using electronic health data to construct registries for comparative effectiveness and epidemiologic research. Med Care. 2012;50 Suppl:S30-5.

Drago L, Toscano M, De Vecchi E, Piconi S, Iemoli E. Changing of fecal flora and clinical effect of L. salivarius LS01 in adults with atopic dermatitis. J Clin Gastroenterol. 2012;46 Suppl:S56-63.

Eichenfield LF, Tom WL, Chamlin SL, Feldman SR, Hanifin JM, Simpson EL, et al. Guidelines of care for the management of atopic dermatitis: section 1. Diagnosis and assessment of atopic dermatitis. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2014;70(2):338-51.

Fabian E, Poloskey P, Kosa L, Elmadfa I, Rethy LA. Nutritional supplements and plasma antioxidants in childhood asthma. Wien Klin Wochenschr. 2013;125(11-12):309-15.

Frieri M. Asthma linked with rhinosinusitis: An extensive review. Allergy Rhinol (Providence). 2014;5(1):41-9.

Gotia S, Rusu T, Badiu I, Murgu A, Rugina A, Ioniuc I. [The effects of inhaled corticoids on bone density in asthmatic children]. Rev Med Chir Soc Med Nat Iasi. 2005;109(1):29-35.

Guo CH, Liu PJ, Lin KP, Chen PC. Nutritional supplement therapy improves oxidative stress, immune response, pulmonary function, and quality of life in allergic asthma patients: an open-label pilot study. Altern Med Rev. 2012;17(1):42-56.

Hamre HJ, Witt CM, Kienle GS, Schnurer C, Glockmann A, Ziegler R, et al. Anthroposophic therapy for asthma: A two-year prospective cohort study in routine outpatient settings. J Asthma Allergy. 2009;2:111-28.

Hannaway PJ. Demographic characteristics of patients experiencing near-fatal and fatal asthma: results of a regional survey of 400 asthma specialists [see comment]. Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol. 2000;84(6):587-93.

Hansel TT, Johnston SL, Openshaw PJ. Microbes and mucosal immune responses in asthma. Lancet. 2013;381(9869):861-73.

Hegner R, Hagner RE, George Washington University. National Health Policy Forum. The asthma epidemic: prospects for controlling an escalating public health crisis: a background paper. Washington, D.C.: National Health Policy Forum; 2000. 16 p. p.

da Costa Baptista IP, Accioly E, de Carvalho Padilha P. Effect of the use of probiotics in the treatment of children with atopic dermatitis; a literature review. Nutr Hosp. 2013;28(1):16-26.

Oh SY, Chung J, Kim MK, Kwon SO, Cho BH. Antioxidant nutrient intakes and corresponding biomarkers associated with the risk of atopic dermatitis in young children. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2010;64(3):245-52.

Orivuori L, Mustonen K, de Goffau MC, Hakala S, Paasela M, Roduit C, et al. High level of fecal calprotectin at age 2 months as a marker of intestinal inflammation predicts atopic dermatitis and asthma by age 6. Clin Exp Allergy. 2015.

Kelly HW, Van Natta ML, Covar RA, Tonascia J, Green RP, Strunk RC, et al. Effect of longterm corticosteroid use on bone mineral density in children: a prospective longitudinal assessment in the childhood Asthma Management Program (CAMP) study. Pediatrics. 2008;122(1):e53-61.

Kummeling I, Thijs C, Penders J, Snijders BE, Stelma F, Reimerink J, et al. Etiology of atopy in infancy: the KOALA Birth Cohort Study. Pediatr Allergy Immunol. 2005;16(8):679-84.

Lang JE, Blake KV. Role of biomarkers in understanding and treating children with asthma: towards personalized care. Pharmgenomics Pers Med. 2013;6:73-84.

Lessa N, Murray ML, Curran S, Wong IC. Asthma and suicide-related adverse events: a review of observational studies. Eur Respir Rev. 2011;20(122):287-92.

Litonjua AA. Childhood asthma may be a consequence of vitamin D deficiency. Curr Opin Allergy Clin Immunol. 2009;9(3):202-7.

Ly NP, Litonjua A, Gold DR, Celedon JC. Gut microbiota, probiotics, and vitamin D: interrelated exposures influencing allergy, asthma, and obesity? J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2011;127(5):1087-94; quiz 95-6.

Mabalirajan U, Ahmad T, Leishangthem GD, Joseph DA, Dinda AK, Agrawal A, et al. Beneficial effects of high dose of L-arginine on airway hyperresponsiveness and airway inflammation in a murine model of asthma. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2010;125(3):626-35.

Marchac V, Foussier V, Devillier P, Le Bourgeois M, Polak M. [Fluticasone propionate in children and infants with asthma]. Arch Pediatr. 2007;14(4):376-87.

McCloud E, Papoutsakis C. A medical nutrition therapy primer for childhood asthma: current and emerging perspectives. J Am Diet Assoc. 2011 Jul;111(7):1052–64.

McCormack MC, Breysse PN, Matsui EC, Hansel NN, Peng RD, Curtin-Brosnan J, et al. Indoor particulate matter increases asthma morbidity in children with non-atopic and atopic asthma. Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol. 2011;106(4):308-15.

Miller AL. The etiologies, pathophysiology, and alternative/complementary treatment of asthma. Altern Med Rev. 2001;6(1):20-47.

Norton RL, Hoffmann PR. Selenium and asthma. Mol Aspects Med. 2012;33(1):98-106.

Orivuori L, Mustonen K, de Goffau MC, Hakala S, Paasela M, Roduit C, et al. High level of fecal calprotectin at age 2 months as a marker of intestinal inflammation predicts atopic dermatitis and asthma by age 6. Clin Exp Allergy. 2015.

Pampura AN. Prevalence of atopic diseases and the use of topical corticosteroids. Is there any connection? Med Hypotheses. 2005;64(3):575-8.

Pfeffer PE, Mann EH, Hornsby E, Chambers ES, Chen YH, Rice L, et al. Vitamin D influences asthmatic pathology through its action on diverse immunological pathways. Ann Am Thorac Soc. 2014;11 Suppl 5:S314-21.

Prescott SL. Early-life environmental determinants of allergic diseases and the wider pandemic of inflammatory noncommunicable diseases. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2013;131(1):23-30.

Propp P, Becker A. Prevention of asthma: where are we in the 21st century? Expert Rev Clin Immunol. 2013;9(12):1267-78.

Prosperi MC, Belgrave D, Buchan I, Simpson A, Custovic A. Challenges in interpreting allergen microarrays in relation to clinical symptoms: a machine learning approach. Pediatr Allergy Immunol. 2014;25(1):71-9.

Searing DA, Zhang Y, Murphy JR, Hauk PJ, Goleva E, Leung DY. Decreased serum vitamin D levels in children with asthma are associated with increased corticosteroid use. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2010;125(5):995-1000.

Taylor-Black SA, Mehta H, Weiderpass E, Boffetta P, Sicherer SH, Wang J. Prevalence of food allergy in New York City school children. Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol. 2014;112(6):554-6 e1.

Theoharides TC. Is a subtype of autism an allergy of the brain? Clin Ther. 2013; 35(5):584-91.

Thomas RH, Meeking MM, Mepham JR, Tichenoff L, Possmayer F, Liu S, et al. The enteric bacterial metabolite propionic acid alters brain and plasma phospholipid molecular species: further development of a rodent model of autism spectrum disorders. J Neuroinflammation. 2012;9:153.

Tsabouri S, Priftis KN, Chaliasos N, Siamopoulou A. Modulation of gut microbiota downregulates the development of food allergy in infancy. Allergol Immunopathol (Madr). 2014;42(1):69-77.

Weldon D. The effects of corticosteroids on bone growth and bone density. Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol. 2009;103(1):3-11; quiz -3, 50.

West CE, Renz H, Jenmalm MC, Kozyrskyj AL, Allen KJ, Vuillermin P, et al. The gut microbiota and inflammatory noncommunicable diseases: associations and potentials for gut microbiota therapies. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2015;135(1):3-13; quiz 4.

Weiss KB, Buist AS, Sullivan SD. Asthma’s impact on society: the social and economic burden. New York: M. Dekker; 2000. xv, 390 p. p.

Wise M, Gustafson DH, Sorkness CA, Molfenter T, Staresinic A, Meis T, et al. Internet telehealth for pediatric asthma case management: integrating computerized and case manager features for tailoring a Web-based asthma education program. Health Promot Pract. 2007;8(3):282-91.

Wlasiuk G, Vercelli D. The farm effect, or: when, what and how a farming environment protects from asthma and allergic disease. Curr Opin Allergy Clin Immunol. 2012;12(5):461-6.

 

AUTISM

Adams C. A real boy: a true story of autism, early intervention, and recovery. Berkeley Trade pbk. ed. New York: Berkley Books; 2005. xiv, 318 p. p.

Adams JB, Audhya T, McDonough-Means S, Rubin RA, Quig D, Geis E, et al. Effect of a vitamin/mineral supplement on children and adults with autism. BMC Pediatr. 2011;11:111.

Alabdali A, Al-Ayadhi L, El-Ansary A. A key role for an impaired detoxification mechanism in the etiology and severity of autism spectrum disorders. Behav Brain Funct. 2014;10:14.

Alabdali A, Al-Ayadhi L, El-Ansary A. Association of social and cognitive impairment and biomarkers in autism spectrum disorders. J Neuroinflammation. 2014;11:4.

Barrett B. Substantial lifelong cost of autism spectrum disorder. J Pediatr. 2014;165(5):1068-9.

Bateman C. Autism–mitigating a global epidemic. S Afr Med J. 2013;103(5):276-7.

Bitsika V, Sharpley CF, Andronicos NM, Agnew LL. Hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis daily fluctuation, anxiety and age interact to predict cortisol concentrations in boys with an autism spectrum disorder. Physiol Behav. 2015;138:200-7.

Bouder JN, Spielman S, Mandell DS. Brief report: Quantifying the impact of autism coverage on private insurance premiums. J Autism Dev Disord. 2009;39(6):953-7.

Bradstreet JJ, Smith S, Baral M, Rossignol DA. Biomarker-guided interventions of clinically relevant conditions associated with autism spectrum disorders and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Altern Med Rev. 2010;15(1):15-32.

Brown CM, Austin DW, Busija L. Observable essential fatty acid deficiency markers and autism spectrum disorder. Breastfeed Rev. 2014;22(2):21-6.

Brudnak MA, Rimland B, Kerry RE, Dailey M, Taylor R, Stayton B, et al. Enzyme-based therapy for autism spectrum disorders — is it worth another look? Med Hypotheses. 2002;58(5):422-8.

Buescher AV, Cidav Z, Knapp M, Mandell DS. Costs of autism spectrum disorders in the United Kingdom and the United States. JAMA Pediatr. 2014;168(8):721-8.

Bull G, Shattock P, Whiteley P, Anderson R, Groundwater PW, Lough JW, et al. Indolyl-3-acryloylglycine (IAG) is a putative diagnostic urinary marker for autism spectrum disorders. Med Sci Monit. 2003;9(10):CR422-5.

Costello EJ, Foley DL, Angold A. 10-year research update review: the epidemiology of child and adolescent psychiatric disorders: II. Developmental epidemiology. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2006 Jan;45(1):8–25.

Critchfield JW, van Hemert S, Ash M, Mulder L, Ashwood P. The potential role of probiotics in the management of childhood autism spectrum disorders. Gastroenterol Res Pract. 2011;2011:161358.

Cubala-Kucharska M. The review of most frequently occurring medical disorders related to aetiology of autism and the methods of treatment. Acta Neurobiol Exp (Wars). 2010;70(2):141-6.

Dave D, Fernandez JM, National Bureau of Economic Research. The effect of an increase in autism prevalence on the demand for auxiliary healthcare workers: evidence from California. Cambridge, MA: National Bureau of Economic Research; 2012. 37 p. p.

Deth R, Muratore C, Benzecry J, Power-Charnitsky VA, Waly M. How environmental and genetic factors combine to cause autism: A redox/methylation hypothesis. Neurotoxicology. 2008;29(1):190-201.

de Magistris L, Familiari V, Pascotto A, Sapone A, Frolli A, Iardino P, et al. Alterations of the intestinal barrier in patients with autism spectrum disorders and in their first-degree relatives. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr. 2010 Oct;51(4):418–24.

Dickens TG. Accept no autism!: our family’s story of recovery. Snellville, GA: Jebaire Pub., LLC; 2010.

Edwards CA, Parrett AM. Intestinal flora during the first months of life: new perspectives. Br J Nutr. 2002;88 Suppl 1:S11-8.

Elamin NE, Al-Ayadhi LY. Brain autoantibodies in autism spectrum disorder. Biomark Med. 2014;8(3):345-52.

El-Ansary A, Al-Ayadhi L. Lipid mediators in plasma of autism spectrum disorders. Lipids Health Dis. 2012;11:160.

El-Ansary A, Al-Ayadhi L. Neuroinflammation in autism spectrum disorders. J Neuroinflammation. 2012;9:265.

Faber S, Zinn GM, Boggess A, Fahrenholz T, Kern JC 2nd, Kingston HM. A cleanroom sleeping environment’s impact on markers of oxidative stress, immune dysregulation, and behavior in children with autism spectrum disorders. BMC Complement Altern Med. 2015;15:71.

Frustaci A, Neri M, Cesario A, Adams JB, Domenici E, Dalla Bernardina B, et al. Oxidative stress-related biomarkers in autism: systematic review and meta-analyses. Free Radic Biol Med. 2012;52(10):2128-41.

Frye RE, James SJ. Metabolic pathology of autism in relation to redox metabolism. Biomark Med. 2014;8(3):321-30.

Gabriele S, Sacco R, Persico AM. Blood serotonin levels in autism spectrum disorder: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Eur Neuropsychopharmacol. 2014;24(6):919-29.

Gadow KD, Devincent CJ, Olvet DM, Pisarevskaya V, Hatchwell E. Association of DRD4 polymorphism with severity of oppositional defiant disorder, separation anxiety disorder and repetitive behaviors in children with autism spectrum disorder. Eur J Neurosci. 2010;32(6):1058-65.

Gadow KD, Roohi J, DeVincent CJ, Kirsch S, Hatchwell E. Association of COMT (Val158Met) and BDNF (Val66Met) gene polymorphisms with anxiety, ADHD and tics in children with autism spectrum disorder. J Autism Dev Disord. 2009;39(11):1542-51.

Gebril OH, Meguid NA. HFE gene polymorphisms and the risk for autism in Egyptian children and impact on the effect of oxidative stress. Dis Markers. 2011;31(5):289-94.

Geier DA, Kern JK, Geier MR. The biological basis of autism spectrum disorders: Understanding causation and treatment by clinical geneticists. Acta Neurobiol Exp (Wars). 2010;70(2):209-26.

Ghanizadeh A. Increased glutamate and homocysteine and decreased glutamine levels in autism: a review and strategies for future studies of amino acids in autism. Dis Markers. 2013;35(5):281-6.

Giustra-Kozek J. Healing without hurting: treating ADHD, apraxia, and autism spectrum disorders naturally and effectively without harmful medication. Howard Beach, NY: Changing Lives Press; 2014. xiii, 370 p. p.

Goldani AA, Downs SR, Widjaja F, Lawton B, Hendren RL. Biomarkers in autism. Front Psychiatry. 2014;5:100.

Guyol G. Who’s crazy here?: Steps for recovery without drugs for: ADD/ADHD, addiction & eating disorders, anxiety & PTSD, depression, bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, autism. 1st U.S. ed. Stonington, CT: Ajoite Pub.; 2010. 123 p. P.

Herbert MR, Russo JP, Yang S, Roohi J, Blaxill M, Kahler SG, et al. Autism and environmental genomics. Neurotoxicology. 2006;27(5):671-84.

Herbert MR, Weintraub K. The autism revolution: whole-body strategies for making life all it can be. New York: Ballantine Books; 2012. xii, 302 p. p.

Heyer NJ, Echeverria D, Woods JS. Disordered porphyrin metabolism: a potential biological marker for autism risk assessment. Autism Res. 2012;5(2):84-92.

James SJ, Cutler P, Melnyk S, Jernigan S, Janak L, Gaylor DW, et al. Metabolic biomarkers of increased oxidative stress and impaired methylation capacity in children with autism. Am J Clin Nutr. 2004;80(6):1611-7.

Jyonouchi H, Geng L, Ruby A, Zimmerman-Bier B. Dysregulated innate immune responses in young children with autism spectrum disorders: their relationship to gastrointestinal symptoms and dietary intervention. Neuropsychobiology. 2005;51(2):77-85.

Jyonouchi H, Sun S, Itokazu N. Innate immunity associated with inflammatory responses and cytokine production against common dietary proteins in patients with autism spectrum disorder. Neuropsychobiology. 2002;46(2):76-84.

Kaufman RK. Autism breakthrough: the groundbreaking method that has helped families all over the world. First edition. ed. New York: St. Martin’s Press; 2014. x, 353 pages p.

Kern JK, Geier DA, Adams JB, Geier MR. A biomarker of mercury body-burden correlated with diagnostic domain specific clinical symptoms of autism spectrum disorder. Biometals. 2010 Dec;23(6):1043–51.

Kuwabara H, Yamasue H, Koike S, Inoue H, Kawakubo Y, Kuroda M, et al. Altered metabolites in the plasma of autism spectrum disorder: a capillary electrophoresis time-of-flight mass spectroscopy study. PLoS One. 2013;8(9):e73814.

Kidd PM. Autism, an extreme challenge to integrative medicine. Part 2: medical management. Altern Med Rev. 2002;7(6):472-99.

Lavelle TA, Weinstein MC, Newhouse JP, Munir K, Kuhlthau KA, Prosser LA. Economic burden of childhood autism spectrum disorders. Pediatrics. 2014;133(3):e520-9.

Lemer PS, Optometric Extension Program Foundation. Envisioning a bright future: interventions that work for children and adults with autism spectrum disorders. Santa Ana, CA: Optometric Extension Program Foundation; 2008. xvi, 414 p. p.

Li SO, Wang JL, Bjorklund G, Zhao WN, Yin CH. Serum copper and zinc levels in individuals with autism spectrum disorders. Neuroreport. 2014;25(15):1216-20.

Maher P. Methylglyoxal, advanced glycation end products and autism: is there a connection? Med Hypotheses. 2012;78(4):548-52.

Momeni N, Bergquist J, Brudin L, Behnia F, Sivberg B, Joghataei MT, et al. A novel bloodbased biomarker for detection of autism spectrum disorders. Transl Psychiatry. 2012;2:e91.

Nankova BB, Agarwal R, MacFabe DF, La Gamma EF. Enteric bacterial metabolites propionic and butyric acid modulate gene expression, including CREB-dependent catecholaminergic neurotransmission, in PC12 cells–possible relevance to autism spectrum disorders. PLoS One. 2014;9(8):e103740.

Ngounou Wetie AG, Wormwood K, Thome J, Dudley E, Taurines R, Gerlach M, et al. A pilot proteomic study of protein markers in autism spectrum disorder. Electrophoresis. 2014;35(14):2046-54.

Patrick RP, Ames BN. Vitamin D hormone regulates serotonin synthesis. Part 1: relevance for autism. FASEB J. 2014;28(6):2398-413.

Peterson BS, Goh S, Dong Z. Brain lactate as a potential biomarker for comorbid anxiety disorder in autism spectrum disorder-reply. JAMA Psychiatry. 2015;72(2):190-1.

Ranjbar A, Rashedi V, Rezaei M. Comparison of urinary oxidative biomarkers in Iranian children with autism. Res Dev Disabil. 2014;35(11):2751-5.

Ratajczak HV. Theoretical aspects of autism: biomarkers–a review. J Immunotoxicol. 2011;8(1):80-94.

Reynolds A, Krebs NF, Stewart PA, Austin H, Johnson SL, Withrow N, et al. Iron status in children with autism spectrum disorder. Pediatrics. 2012;130 Suppl 2:S154-9.

Romaniec M. Victory over autism: lessons on raising an autism-free child. New York, NY: Skyhorse Publishing; 2015. pages cm p.

Ruggeri B, Sarkans U, Schumann G, Persico AM. Biomarkers in autism spectrum disorder: the old and the new. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 2014;231(6):1201-16.

Rutter M. Changing concepts and findings on autism. J Autism Dev Disord. 2013;43(8):1749-57.

Seroussi K. Unraveling the mystery of autism and pervasive developmental disorder : a mother’s story of research and recovery. New York: Simon & Schuster; 2000. 288 p. p.

Sears RW. The autism book: what every parent needs to know about early detection, treatment, recovery, and prevention. 1st ed. New York, NY: Little, Brown; 2010. xv, 398 p.p.

Spilioti M, Evangeliou AE, Tramma D, Theodoridou Z, Metaxas S, Michailidi E, et al. Evidence for treatable inborn errors of metabolism in a cohort of 187 Greek patients with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Front Hum Neurosci. 2013;7:858.

Theoharides TC. Is a subtype of autism an allergy of the brain? Clin Ther. 2013; 35(5):584-91.

Thomas RH, Meeking MM, Mepham JR, Tichenoff L, Possmayer F, Liu S, et al. The enteric bacterial metabolite propionic acid alters brain and plasma phospholipid molecular species: further development of a rodent model of autism spectrum disorders. J Neuroinflammation. 2012;9:153.

Wang L, Conlon MA, Christophersen CT, Sorich MJ, Angley MT. Gastrointestinal microbiota and metabolite biomarkers in children with autism spectrum disorders. Biomark Med. 2014;8(3):331-44.

Woodman AC, Smith LE, Greenberg JS, Mailick MR. Change in autism symptoms and maladaptive behaviors in adolescence and adulthood: the role of positive family processes. J Autism Dev Disord. 2015;45(1):111-26.

 

AUTOIMMUNE CONDITIONS (JIA/RA, Inflammatory Bowel, Crohn’s, Colitis, MS, Type 1 diabetes, etc.)

Adebayo O, Willis GC. The changing face of diabetes in America. Emerg Med Clin North Am. 2014;32(2):319-27.

Classen JB. Review of evidence that epidemics of type 1 diabetes and type 2 diabetes/metabolic syndrome are polar opposite responses to iatrogenic inflammation. Curr Diabetes Rev. 2012;8(6):413-8.

Craig SM, Yu F, Curtis JR, Alarcon GS, Conn DL, Jonas B, et al. Vitamin D status and its associations with disease activity and severity in African Americans with recent-onset rheumatoid arthritis. J Rheumatol. 2010;37(2):275-81.

Cucchiara S, Stronati L, Aloi M. Interactions between intestinal microbiota and innate immune system in pediatric inflammatory bowel disease. J Clin Gastroenterol. 2012;46 Suppl:S64-6.

de Goffau MC, Luopajarvi K, Knip M, Ilonen J, Ruohtula T, Harkonen T, et al. Fecal microbiota composition differs between children with beta-cell autoimmunity and those without. Diabetes. 2013;62(4):1238-44.

Fukuda K, Fujita Y. Determination of the discriminant score of intestinal microbiota as a biomarker of disease activity in patients with ulcerative colitis. BMC Gastroenterol. 2014;14:49.

Guandalini S. Are probiotics or prebiotics useful in pediatric irritable bowel syndrome or inflammatory bowel disease? Front Med (Lausanne). 2014;1:23.

Guandalini S, Cernat E, Moscoso D. Prebiotics and probiotics in irritable bowel syndrome and inflammatory bowel disease in children. Benef Microbes. 2015;6(2):209-17.

Hinzmann R, Schlaeger C, Tran CT. What do we need beyond hemoglobin A1c to get the complete picture of glycemia in people with diabetes? Int J Med Sci. 2012;9(8):665-81.

Jakobsen C, Paerregaard A, Munkholm P, Wewer V. Environmental factors and risk of developing paediatric inflammatory bowel disease — a population based study 2007-2009. J Crohns Colitis. 2013;7(1):79-88.

Kapka-Skrzypczak L, Niedzwiecka J, Cyranka M, Kruszewski MK, Skrzypczak M, Wojtyla A. [Nutrigenomics – perspectives of personalized nutrition]. Pediatr Endocrinol Diabetes Metab. 2011;17(4):222-6.

Laron Z. Interplay between heredity and environment in the recent explosion of type 1 childhood diabetes mellitus. Am J Med Genet. 2002;115(1):4-7.

Leverone D, Epstein BJ. Nonpharmacological interventions for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis: a focus on mind-body medicine. J Pharm Pract. 2010;23(2):101-9.

Pacal L, Varvarovska J, Rusavy Z, Lacigova S, Stetina R, Racek J, et al. Parameters of oxidative stress, DNA damage and DNA repair in type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Arch Physiol Biochem. 2011;117(4):222-30.

Rasool M, Malik A, Qureshi MS, Manan A, Pushparaj PN, Asif M, et al. Recent updates in the treatment of neurodegenerative disorders using natural compounds. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2014;2014:979730.

Rosa JS, Oliver SR, Flores RL, Ngo J, Milne GL, Zaldivar FP, et al. Altered inflammatory, oxidative, and metabolic responses to exercise in pediatric obesity and type 1 diabetes. Pediatr Diabetes. 2011 Aug;12(5):464–72.

Stagi S, Bertini F, Cavalli L, Matucci-Cerinic M, Brandi ML, Falcini F. Determinants of vitamin D levels in children, adolescents, and young adults with juvenile idiopathic arthritis.J Rheumatol. 2014;41(9):1884-92.

Tuomi T, Santoro N, Caprio S, Cai M, Weng J, Groop L. The many faces of diabetes: a disease with increasing heterogeneity. Lancet. 2014;383(9922):1084-94.

Vaarala O. Is the origin of type 1 diabetes in the gut? Immunol Cell Biol. 2012;90(3):271-6.

Vaarala O. Gut microbiota and type 1 diabetes. Rev Diabet Stud. 2012;9(4):251-9.

Wahls TL, Adamson E. The Wahls protocol: how I beat progressive MS using Paleo principles and functional medicine. New York: Avery, a member of Penguin Group (USA); 2014. viii, 421 pages p.

Watt T, Hegedus L, Bjorner JB, Groenvold M, Bonnema SJ, Rasmussen AK, et al. Is Thyroid Autoimmunity per se a Determinant of Quality of Life in Patients with Autoimmune Hypothyroidism? Eur Thyroid J. 2012;1(3):186-92.

Whittaker F. Rheumatoid remedies: a collection of more than 70 pages of nutritional and drug-free options to promote recovery from rheumatoid arthritis and associated inflammatory diseases. 1st ed. Kaitaia, N.Z.: Dancing Lion Press; 2009. 84 p. P.

 

OBESITY/DIABETES TYPE II

Adebayo O, Willis GC. The changing face of diabetes in America. Emerg Med Clin North Am. 2014;32(2):319-27.

Balagopal P. Obesity-related cardiovascular risk in children and the role of lifestyle changes. J Cardiometab Syndr. 2006;1(4):269-74; quiz 75-6.

Banerjee S, Debnath P, Rao PN, Tripathy TB, Adhikari A, Debnath PK. Ayurveda in changing scenario of diabetes management for developing safe and effective treatment choices for the future. J Complement Integr Med. 2015.

Basic M, Butorac A, Landeka Jurcevic I, Bacun-Druzina V. Obesity: genome and environment interactions. Arh Hig Rada Toksikol. 2012;63(3):395-405.

Bazar KA, Yun AJ, Lee PY, Daniel SM, Doux JD. Obesity and ADHD may represent different manifestations of a common environmental oversampling syndrome: a model for revealing mechanistic overlap among cognitive, metabolic, and inflammatory disorders. Med Hypotheses. 2006;66(2):263-9.

Bipartisan Policy Center. Lots to lose how America’s health and obesity crisis threatens our economic future. Washington, D.C.: Bipartisan Policy Center; 2012. 

Bolin K, Cawley JH. The economics of obesity. 1st ed. Amsterdam; Boston: Elsevier JAI; 2007. xxiii, 364 p. p.

Bradley R, Oberg EB, Calabrese C, Standish LJ. Algorithm for complementary and alternative medicine practice and research in type 2 diabetes. J Altern Complement Med. 2007 Jan;13(1):159–75.

Carlson JA, Crespo NC, Sallis JF, Patterson RE, Elder JP. Dietary-related and physical activity-related predictors of obesity in children: a 2-year prospective study. Child Obes. 2012;8(2):110-5.

Choquet H, Meyre D. Genomic insights into early-onset obesity. Genome Med. 2010;2(6):36.

Classen JB. Review of evidence that epidemics of type 1 diabetes and type 2 diabetes/metabolic syndrome are polar opposite responses to iatrogenic inflammation. Curr Diabetes Rev. 2012;8(6):413-8.

Cortese S, Angriman M. Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, iron deficiency, and obesity: is there a link? Postgrad Med. 2014;126(4):155-70.

Desai JR, Wu P, Nichols GA, Lieu TA, O’Connor PJ. Diabetes and asthma case identification, validation, and representativeness when using electronic health data to construct registries for comparative effectiveness and epidemiologic research. Med Care. 2012;50 Suppl:S30-5.

Douglas BL, Smithline N, Washington Business Group on Health. Obesity an overview of an American epidemic. Washington, D.C.: Washington Business Group on Health,; 2002.

Guthrie DW, Sargent L, Speelman D, Parks L. Effects of parental relaxation training on glycosylated hemoglobin of children with diabetes. Patient Educ Couns. 1990;16(3):247-53.

He C, Shan Y, Song W. Targeting gut microbiota as a possible therapy for diabetes. Nutr Res. 2015.

Hinzmann R, Schlaeger C, Tran CT. What do we need beyond hemoglobin A1c to get the complete picture of glycemia in people with diabetes? Int J Med Sci. 2012;9(8):665-81.

Kogut SJ, Johnson S, Higgins T, Quilliam B. Evaluation of a program to improve diabetes care through intensified care management activities and diabetes medication copayment reduction. J Manag Care Pharm. 2012;18(4):297-310.

Kong AP, Xu G, Brown N, So WY, Ma RC, Chan JC. Diabetes and its comorbidities–where East meets West. Nat Rev Endocrinol. 2013;9(9):537-47.

Levi J, Segal LM, St. Laurent R, Lang A, Rayburn J, Robert Wood Johnson Foundation., et al. F as in fat how obesity threatens America’s future : 2012. Washington, D.C.: Trust for America’s Health; 2012.

Ly NP, Litonjua A, Gold DR, Celedon JC. Gut microbiota, probiotics, and vitamin D: interrelated exposures influencing allergy, asthma, and obesity? J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2011;127(5):1087-94; quiz 95-6.

Magrone T, Jirillo E. Childhood obesity: immune response and nutritional approaches. Front Immunol. 2015;6:76.

Pacal L, Varvarovska J, Rusavy Z, Lacigova S, Stetina R, Racek J, et al. Parameters of oxidative stress, DNA damage and DNA repair in type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Arch Physiol Biochem. 2011;117(4):222-30.

Pulgaron ER. Childhood obesity: a review of increased risk for physical and psychological comorbidities. Clin Ther. 2013;35(1):A18-32.

Rosa JS, Oliver SR, Flores RL, Ngo J, Milne GL, Zaldivar FP, et al. Altered inflammatory, oxidative, and metabolic responses to exercise in pediatric obesity and type 1 diabetes. Pediatr Diabetes. 2011 Aug;12(5):464–72.

Sanchez M, Panahi S, Tremblay A. Childhood obesity: a role for gut microbiota? Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2015;12(1):162-75.

Sexson EL, Monaghan MS, Lenz TL, Haddad AR, Jensen G, Elsasser G. Use of a multidisciplinary tool to achieve target outcomes in Native American patients with diabetes: Treat-to-target. J Multidiscip Healthc. 2008;1:73-7.

Tuomi T, Santoro N, Caprio S, Cai M, Weng J, Groop L. The many faces of diabetes: a disease with increasing heterogeneity. Lancet. 2014;383(9922):1084-94.

 

MOOD DISORDERS AND MENTAL HEALTH

Berk M, Williams LJ, Jacka FN, O’Neil A, Pasco JA, Moylan S, et al. So depression is an inflammatory disease, but where does the inflammation come from? BMC Med. 2013;11:200.

Bonnot O, Inaoui R, Raffin-Viard M, Bodeau N, Coussieu C, Cohen D. Children and adolescents with severe mental illness need vitamin D supplementation regardless of disease or treatment. J Child Adolesc Psychopharmacol. 2011;21(2):157-61.

Cohen-Cline H, Turkheimer E, Duncan GE. Access to green space, physical activity and mental health: a twin study. J Epidemiol Community Health [Internet]. 2015 Jan 28.

Costello EJ, Foley DL, Angold A. 10-year research update review: the epidemiology of child and adolescent psychiatric disorders: II. Developmental epidemiology. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2006 Jan;45(1):8–25.

Currie JM, Stabile M, National Bureau of Economic Research. Mental health in childhood and human capital. Cambridge, MA: National Bureau of Economic Research; 2007. 31 p. p.

Doman GJ. What to do about your brain-injured child, or your brain-damaged, mentally retarded, mentally deficient, cerebral-palsied, emotionally disturbed, spastic, flaccid, rigid, epileptic, autistic, athetoid, hyperactive child. 1st ed. Garden City, N.Y.,: Doubleday; 1974. xv, 291 p. p.

Fernandes AC, Cloete D, Broadbent MT, Hayes RD, Chang CK, Jackson RG, et al. Development and evaluation of a de-identification procedure for a case register sourced from mental health electronic records. BMC Med Inform Decis Mak. 2013;13:71.

Guyol G. Who’s crazy here?: Steps for recovery without drugs for: ADD/ADHD, addiction & eating disorders, anxiety & PTSD, depression, bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, autism. 1st U.S. ed. Stonington, CT: Ajoite Pub.; 2010. 123 p. P.

Hepgul N, Cattaneo A, Zunszain PA, Pariante CM. Depression pathogenesis and treatment: what can we learn from blood mRNA expression? BMC Med. 2013;11:28.

Hyman M. The UltraMind solution: fix your broken brain by healing your body first : the simple way to defeat depression, overcome anxiety and sharpen your mind. 1st Scribner hardcover ed. New York: Scribner; 2008. xiv, 447 p. p.

Karakula H, Opolska A, Kowal A, Domanski M, Plotka A, Perzynski J. [Does diet affect our mood? The significance of folic acid and homocysteine]. Pol Merkur Lekarski. 2009;26(152):136-41.

Kidd PM. Omega-3 DHA and EPA for cognition, behavior, and mood: clinical findings and structural-functional synergies with cell membrane phospholipids. Altern Med Rev. 2007;12(3):207-27.

Mitchell ES, Conus N, Kaput J. B vitamin polymorphisms and behavior: evidence of associations with neurodevelopment, depression, schizophrenia, bipolar disorder and cognitive decline. Neurosci Biobehav Rev. 2014;47:307-20.

Thompson L, Kemp J, Wilson P, Pritchett R, Minnis H, Toms-Whittle L, et al. What have birth cohort studies asked about genetic, pre- and perinatal exposures and child and adolescent onset mental health outcomes? A systematic review. Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2010;19(1):1-15.

Van Meter AR, Henry DB, West AE. What goes up must come down: the burden of bipolar depression in youth. J Affect Disord. 2013;150(3):1048-54.

 

OTHER HEALTH ISSUES

Checkley W, Robinson CL, Baumann LM, Hansel NN, Romero KM, Pollard SL, et al. 25-hydroxy vitamin D levels are associated with childhood asthma in a population-based study in Peru. Clin Exp Allergy. 2015 Jan;45(1):273–82.

Suarez-Lopez JR, Himes JH, Jacobs DR Jr, Alexander BH, Gunnar MR. Acetylcholinesterase activity and neurodevelopment in boys and girls. Pediatrics. 2013 Dec;132(6):e1649–58.