ENVIRONMENTAL STRESSORS (RISK REDUCTION)

Copious volumes of literature confirm the role of environmental toxins and other physiological stressors on the health and development of children. A simple literature search yields hundreds of studies examining the impact of toxins such as PDBE, BPA, heavy metals, phthalates, etc. as well as the impact of other environmental stressors such as exposure to electromagnetic radiation, overuse of pharmaceutical agents, or emotional stress in the home.

Nutrient deficiencies are also widely viewed as a major contributor to the development of chronic illness and developmental delays. Removing risk factors, such as nutritional deficiencies and toxic exposures often results in improved health outcomes. What’s more, researchers are beginning to look at the impact of multivariate risk reduction to promote even greater health outcomes. These studies are only representative.

Additional literature is available upon request.

Aguilera M, Vergara P, Martinez V. Stress and antibiotics alter luminal and wall-adhered microbiota and enhance the local expression of visceral sensory-related systems in mice. Neurogastroenterol Motil. 2013;25(8):e515-29.

Assa A, Vong L, Pinnell LJ, Avitzur N, Johnson-Henry KC, Sherman PM. Vitamin D deficiency promotes epithelial barrier dysfunction and intestinal inflammation. J Infect Dis. 2014;210(8):1296-305.

Axelrad DA, Bellinger DC, Ryan LM, Woodruff TJ. Dose-response relationship of prenatal mercury exposure and IQ: an integrative analysis of epidemiologic data. Environ Health Perspect. 2007;115(4):609-15.

Back O, Blomquist HK, Hernell O, Stenberg B. Does vitamin D intake during infancy promote the development of atopic allergy? Acta Derm Venereol. 2009;89(1):28-32.

Baker EL, Jr., Hayes CG, Landrigan PJ, Handke JL, Leger RT, Housworth WJ, et al. A nationwide survey of heavy metal absorption in children living near primary copper, lead, and zinc smelters. Am J Epidemiol. 1977;106(4):261-73.

Basic M, Butorac A, Landeka Jurcevic I, Bacun-Druzina V. Obesity: genome and environment interactions. Arh Hig Rada Toksikol. 2012;63(3):395-405.

Basit S. Vitamin D in health and disease: a literature review. Br J Biomed Sci. 2013;70(4):161-72.

Bellinger DC. Comparing the population neurodevelopmental burdens associated with children’s exposures to environmental chemicals and other risk factors. Neurotoxicology. 2012;33(4):641-3.

Berk M, Williams LJ, Jacka FN, O’Neil A, Pasco JA, Moylan S, et al. So depression is an inflammatory disease, but where does the inflammation come from? BMC Med. 2013;11:200.

Bonnot O, Inaoui R, Raffin-Viard M, Bodeau N, Coussieu C, Cohen D. Children and adolescents with severe mental illness need vitamin D supplementation regardless of disease or treatment. J Child Adolesc Psychopharmacol. 2011;21(2):157-61.

Bouchard MF, Bellinger DC, Wright RO, Weisskopf MG. Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and urinary metabolites of organophosphate pesticides. Pediatrics. 2010;125(6):e1270-7.

Brent RL, Weitzman M. The current state of knowledge about the effects, risks, and science of children’s environmental exposures. Pediatrics. 2004;113(4 Suppl):1158-66.

Campbell DE, Boyle RJ, Thornton CA, Prescott SL. Mechanisms of Allergic Disease – Environmental and genetic determinants for the development of allergy. Clin Exp Allergy. 2015.

Checkley W, Robinson CL, Baumann LM, Hansel NN, Romero KM, Pollard SL, et al. 25-hydroxy vitamin D levels are associated with childhood asthma in a population-based study in Peru. Clin Exp Allergy. 2015;45(1):273-82.

Chopra V, Harley K, Lahiff M, Eskenazi B. Association between phthalates and attention deficit disorder and learning disability in U.S. children, 6-15 years. Environ Res. 2014;128:64-9.

Council On Environmental H. Pesticide exposure in children. Pediatrics. 2012;130(6):e1757-63.

Craig SM, Yu F, Curtis JR, Alarcon GS, Conn DL, Jonas B, et al. Vitamin D status and its associations with disease activity and severity in African Americans with recent-onset rheumatoid arthritis. J Rheumatol. 2010;37(2):275-81.

Della Giustina A, Landi M, Bellini F, Bosoni M, Ferrante G, Onorari M, et al. Vitamin D, allergies and asthma: focus on pediatric patients. World Allergy Organ J. 2014;7(1):27.

Denham M, Schell LM, Deane G, Gallo MV, Ravenscroft J, DeCaprio AP, et al. Relationship of lead, mercury, mirex, dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene, hexachlorobenzene, and polychlorinated biphenyls to timing of menarche among Akwesasne Mohawk girls. Pediatrics. 2005;115(2):e127-34.

Derauf C, LaGasse L, Smith L, Newman E, Shah R, Arria A, et al. Infant temperament and high-risk environment relate to behavior problems and language in toddlers. J Dev Behav Pediatr. 2011;32(2):125-35.

Deth R, Muratore C, Benzecry J, Power-Charnitsky VA, Waly M. How environmental and genetic factors combine to cause autism: A redox/methylation hypothesis. Neurotoxicology. 2008;29(1):190-201.

Englender SJ, Atwood RG, Landrigan PJ, Clarkson TW, Greenwood MR, Smith JC. Organic mercury exposure from fungicide-contaminated eggs. Arch Environ Health. 1980;35(4):224-8.

Fenske RA, Black KG, Elkner KP, Lee CL, Methner MM, Soto R. Potential exposure and health risks of infants following indoor residential pesticide applications. Am J Public Health. 1990;80(6):689-93.

Geier DA, Geier MR. An assessment of downward trends in neurodevelopmental disorders in the United States following removal of Thimerosal from childhood vaccines. Med Sci Monit. 2006;12(6):CR231-9.

Geier DA, Kern JK, Geier MR. The biological basis of autism spectrum disorders: Understanding causation and treatment by clinical geneticists. Acta Neurobiol Exp (Wars). 2010;70(2):209-26.

Goodlin-Jones B, Tang K, Liu J, Anders TF. Sleep problems, sleepiness and daytime behavior in preschool-age children. J Child Psychol Psychiatry. 2009;50(12):1532-40.

Grandjean P, Harari R, Barr DB, Debes F. Pesticide exposure and stunting as independent predictors of neurobehavioral deficits in Ecuadorian school children. Pediatrics. 2006;117(3):e546-56.

Grant WB, Wimalawansa SJ, Holick MF, Cannell JJ, Pludowski P, Lappe JM, et al. Emphasizing the Health Benefits of Vitamin D for Those with Neurodevelopmental Disorders and Intellectual Disabilities. Nutrients. 2015;7(3):1538-64.

Gu F, Chauhan V, Chauhan A. Glutathione redox imbalance in brain disorders. Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care. 2015;18(1):89-95.

Gurunathan S, Robson M, Freeman N, Buckley B, Roy A, Meyer R, et al. Accumulation of chlorpyrifos on residential surfaces and toys accessible to children. Environ Health Perspect. 1998;106(1):9-16.

Herbstman JB, Sjodin A, Kurzon M, Lederman SA, Jones RS, Rauh V, et al. Prenatal exposure to PBDEs and neurodevelopment. Environ Health Perspect. 2010;118(5):712-9.

Homan KJ, Boyatzis CJ. The protective role of attachment to God against eating disorder risk factors: concurrent and prospective evidence. Eat Disord. 2010;18(3):239-58.

Hore P, Robson M, Freeman N, Zhang J, Wartenberg D, Ozkaynak H, et al. Chlorpyrifos accumulation patterns for child-accessible surfaces and objects and urinary metabolite excretion by children for 2 weeks after crack-and-crevice application. Environ Health Perspect. 2005;113(2):211-9.

Hsieh MH. The microbiome and probiotics in childhood. Semin Reprod Med. 2014;32(1):23-7.

Jakobsen C, Paerregaard A, Munkholm P, Wewer V. Environmental factors and risk of developing paediatric inflammatory bowel disease — a population based study 2007-2009. J Crohns Colitis. 2013;7(1):79-88.

Kang JW, Kim JH, Yoon JH, Kim CH. The association between serum vitamin D level and immunoglobulin E in Korean adolescents. Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol. 2014;78(5):817-20.

Karakula H, Opolska A, Kowal A, Domanski M, Plotka A, Perzynski J. [Does diet affect our mood? The significance of folic acid and homocysteine]. Pol Merkur Lekarski. 2009;26(152):136-41.

Kienle GS, Albonico HU, Baars E, Hamre HJ, Zimmermann P, Kiene H. Anthroposophic medicine: an integrative medical system originating in europe. Glob Adv Health Med. 2013;2(6):20-31.

Klein EG, Lytle LA, Chen V. Social ecological predictors of the transition to overweight in youth: results from the Teens Eating for Energy and Nutrition at Schools (TEENS) study. J Am Diet Assoc. 2008;108(7):1163-9.

Korrick SA, Sagiv SK. Polychlorinated biphenyls, organochlorine pesticides and neurodevelopment. Curr Opin Pediatr. 2008;20(2):198-204.

Kummeling I, Thijs C, Penders J, Snijders BE, Stelma F, Reimerink J, et al. Etiology of atopy in infancy: the KOALA Birth Cohort Study. Pediatr Allergy Immunol. 2005;16(8):679-84

Lahat E, Heyman E, Livne A, Goldman M, Berkovitch M, Zachor D. Iron deficiency in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Isr Med Assoc J. 2011;13(9):530-3.

Landrigan PJ. Occupational and community exposures to toxic metals: lead, cadmium, mercury and arsenic. West J Med. 1982;137(6):531-9.

Landrigan PJ. Health effects of environmental toxins in deficient housing. Bull N Y Acad Med. 1990;66(5):491-9.

Landrigan PJ, Baker EL. Exposure of children in heavy metals from smelters: epidemiology and toxic consequences. Environ Res. 1981;25(1):204-24.

Landrigan PJ, Kimmel CA, Correa A, Eskenazi B. Children’s health and the environment: public health issues and challenges for risk assessment. Environ Health Perspect. 2004;112(2):257-65.

Landrigan PJ, Wilcox KR, Jr., Silva J, Jr., Humphrey HE, Kauffman C, Heath CW, Jr. Cohort study of Michigan residents exposed to polybrominated biphenyls: epidemiologic and immunologic findings. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 1979;320:284-94.

Lang C, Murgia C, Leong M, Tan LW, Perozzi G, Knight D, et al. Anti-inflammatory effects of zinc and alterations in zinc transporter mRNA in mouse models of allergic inflammation. Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol. 2007;292(2):L577-84.

Lanphear BP, Wright RO, Dietrich KN. Environmental neurotoxins. Pediatr Rev. 2005;26(6):191-7; quiz 8.

Lee DH, Jacobs DR, Porta M. Association of serum concentrations of persistent organic pollutants with the prevalence of learning disability and attention deficit disorder. J Epidemiol Community Health. 2007;61(7):591-6.

Lee HS, Barraza-Villarreal A, Hernandez-Vargas H, Sly PD, Biessy C, Ramakrishnan U, et al. Modulation of DNA methylation states and infant immune system by dietary supplementation with omega-3 PUFA during pregnancy in an intervention study. Am J Clin Nutr. 2013;98(2):480-7.

Litonjua AA. Childhood asthma may be a consequence of vitamin D deficiency. Curr Opin Allergy Clin Immunol. 2009;9(3):202-7.

Louis JB, Kisselbach KC, Jr. Indoor air levels of chlordane and heptachlor following termiticide applications. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol. 1987;39(6):911-8.

Oh SY, Chung J, Kim MK, Kwon SO, Cho BH. Antioxidant nutrient intakes and corresponding biomarkers associated with the risk of atopic dermatitis in young children. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2010;64(3):245-52.

Marild K, Ye W, Lebwohl B, Green PH, Blaser MJ, Card T, et al. Antibiotic exposure and the development of coeliac disease: a nationwide case-control study. BMC Gastroenterol. 2013;13:109.

McCormack MC, Breysse PN, Matsui EC, Hansel NN, Peng RD, Curtin-Brosnan J, et al. Indoor particulate matter increases asthma morbidity in children with non-atopic and atopic asthma. Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol. 2011;106(4):308-15.

Miranda ML, Kim D, Reiter J, Overstreet Galeano MA, Maxson P. Environmental contributors to the achievement gap. Neurotoxicology. 2009;30(6):1019-24.

Mitchell ES, Conus N, Kaput J. B vitamin polymorphisms and behavior: evidence of associations with neurodevelopment, depression, schizophrenia, bipolar disorder and cognitive decline. Neurosci Biobehav Rev. 2014;47:307-20.

Montero D, Walther G, Perez-Martin A, Roche E, Vinet A. Endothelial dysfunction, inflammation, and oxidative stress in obese children and adolescents: markers and effect of lifestyle intervention. Obes Rev. 2012;13(5):441-55.

Morse DL, Harrington JM, Housworth J, Landrigan PJ, Kelter A. Arsenic exposure in multiple environmental media in children near a smelter. Clin Toxicol. 1979;14(4):389-99.

Needleman HL, Landrigan PJ. The health effects of low level exposure to lead. Annu Rev Public Health. 1981;2:277-98.

Nishioka MG, Lewis RG, Brinkman MC, Burkholder HM, Hines CE, Menkedick JR. Distribution of 2,4-D in air and on surfaces inside residences after lawn applications: comparing exposure estimates from various media for young children. Environ Health Perspect. 2001;109(11):1185-91.

Prescott SL. Early-life environmental determinants of allergic diseases and the wider pandemic of inflammatory noncommunicable diseases. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2013;131(1):23-30.

Pueyo B, Mach N. [Intestinal dysbiosis in pediatric patients with Crohn’s disease]. Nutr Hosp. 2013;28(6):1820-8.

Reynolds A, Krebs NF, Stewart PA, Austin H, Johnson SL, Withrow N, et al. Iron status in children with autism spectrum disorder. Pediatrics. 2012;130 Suppl 2:S154-9.

Ribas-Fito N, Cardo E, Sala M, Eulalia de Muga M, Mazon C, Verdu A, et al. Breastfeeding, exposure to organochlorine compounds, and neurodevelopment in infants. Pediatrics. 2003;111(5 Pt 1):e580-5.

Roberts JR, Karr CJ, Council On Environmental H. Pesticide exposure in children.Pediatrics. 2012;130(6):e1765-88.

Rogan WJ, Ragan NB. Evidence of effects of environmental chemicals on the endocrine system in children. Pediatrics. 2003;112(1 Pt 2):247-52.

Rosanoff A, Weaver CM, Rude RK. Suboptimal magnesium status in the United States: are the health consequences underestimated? Nutr Rev. 2012;70(3):153-64.

Sagiv SK, Kalkbrenner AE, Bellinger DC. Of decrements and disorders: assessing impairments in neurodevelopment in prospective studies of environmental toxicant exposures. Environ Health. 2015;14(1):8.

Saillenfait AM, Ndiaye D, Sabate JP. Pyrethroids: Exposure and health effects – An update. Int J Hyg Environ Health. 2015;218(3):281-92.

Scheepers LE, Penders J, Mbakwa CA, Thijs C, Mommers M, Arts IC. The intestinal microbiota composition and weight development in children: the KOALA Birth Cohort Study. Int J Obes (Lond). 2015;39(1):16-25.

Searing DA, Zhang Y, Murphy JR, Hauk PJ, Goleva E, Leung DY. Decreased serum vitamin D levels in children with asthma are associated with increased corticosteroid use. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2010;125(5):995-1000.

Stagi S, Bertini F, Cavalli L, Matucci-Cerinic M, Brandi ML, Falcini F. Determinants of vitamin D levels in children, adolescents, and young adults with juvenile idiopathic arthritis.J Rheumatol. 2014;41(9):1884-92.

Suarez-Lopez JR, Himes JH, Jacobs DR, Jr., Alexander BH, Gunnar MR. Acetylcholinesterase activity and neurodevelopment in boys and girls. Pediatrics. 2013;132(6):e1649-58.

Vojdani A, Lambert J. The onset of enhanced intestinal permeability and food sensitivity triggered by medication used in dental procedures: a case report. Case Rep Gastrointest Med. 2012;2012:265052.

Whiteley, Paul. Organic pollutants and behavioural severity in autism? Questioning Answers. 2016; May. Blog post found here: http://questioning-answers.blogspot.ca/2016/05/organic-pollutants-and-behavioural-severity-autism.html.

Wlasiuk G, Vercelli D. The farm effect, or: when, what and how a farming environment protects from asthma and allergic disease. Curr Opin Allergy Clin Immunol. 2012;12(5):461-6.

Wysowski DK, Landrigan PJ, Ferguson SW, Fontaine RE, Tsongas TA, Porter B. Cadmium exposure in a community near a smelter. Am J Epidemiol. 1978;107(1):27-35.

Xu X, Nembhard WN, Kan H, Kearney G, Zhang ZJ, Talbott EO. Urinary trichlorophenol levels and increased risk of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder among US school-aged children. Occup Environ Med. 2011;68(8):557-61.

Yousef S, Adem A, Zoubeidi T, Kosanovic M, Mabrouk AA, Eapen V. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and environmental toxic metal exposure in the United Arab Emirates. J Trop Pediatr. 2011;57(6):457-60.

Zeng Y, Gu D, Purser J, Hoenig H, Christakis N. Associations of environmental factors with elderly health and mortality in China. Am J Public Health. 2010;100(2):298-305.

 

MULTIVARIATE RISK REDUCTION

Chen K, Zhang X, Li TY, Chen L, Wei XP, Qu P, et al. Effect of vitamin A, vitamin A plus iron and multiple micronutrient-fortified seasoning powder on infectious morbidity of preschool children. Nutrition. 2011;27(4):428-34.

Choquet H, Meyre D. Genomic insights into early-onset obesity. Genome Med. 2010;2(6):36.

D’Auria E, Miraglia Del Giudice M, Barberi S, Mandelli M, Verduci E, Leonardi S, et al. Omega-3 fatty acids and asthma in children. Allergy Asthma Proc. 2014;35(3):233-40.

Edelman D, Oddone EZ, Liebowitz RS, Yancy WS, Jr., Olsen MK, Jeffreys AS, et al. A multidimensional integrative medicine intervention to improve cardiovascular risk. J Gen Intern Med. 2006;21(7):728-34.

Faber S, Zinn GM, Boggess A, Fahrenholz T, Kern JC, 2nd, Kingston HM. A cleanroom sleeping environment’s impact on markers of oxidative stress, immune dysregulation, and behavior in children with autism spectrum disorders. BMC Complement Altern Med. 2015;15:71.

Gottschling S, Gronwald B, Schmitt S, Schmitt C, Langler A, Leidig E, et al. Use of complementary and alternative medicine in healthy children and children with chronic medical conditions in Germany. Complement Ther Med. 2013;21 Suppl 1:S61-9.

Herbert MR, Weintraub K. The autism revolution: whole-body strategies for making life all it can be. New York: Ballantine Books; 2012. xii, 302 p. p.

Investigators M-EN. The MAL-ED study: a multinational and multidisciplinary approach to understand the relationship between enteric pathogens, malnutrition, gut physiology, physical growth, cognitive development, and immune responses in infants and children up to 2 years of age in resource-poor environments. Clin Infect Dis. 2014;59 Suppl 4:S193-206.

Kummeling I, Thijs C, Penders J, Snijders BE, Stelma F, Reimerink J, et al. Etiology of atopy in infancy: the KOALA Birth Cohort Study. Pediatr Allergy Immunol. 2005;16(8):679-84.

Lemer PS, Optometric Extension Program Foundation. Envisioning a bright future: interventions that work for children and adults with autism spectrum disorders. Santa Ana, CA: Optometric Extension Program Foundation; 2008. xvi, 414 p. p.

Ly NP, Litonjua A, Gold DR, Celedon JC. Gut microbiota, probiotics, and vitamin D: interrelated exposures influencing allergy, asthma, and obesity? J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2011;127(5):1087-94; quiz 95-6.

Oken BS, Chamine I, Wakeland W. A systems approach to stress, stressors and resilience in humans. Behav Brain Res. 2015;282:144-54.

Prosperi MC, Belgrave D, Buchan I, Simpson A, Custovic A. Challenges in interpreting allergen microarrays in relation to clinical symptoms: a machine learning approach. Pediatr Allergy Immunol. 2014;25(1):71-9.

Tompa A, Szende B. [Preventive medicine: biomonitoring and chemoprevention]. Magy Onkol. 2002;46(2):147-53.

 

CHEMICALS/PESTICIDES/HERBICIDES/POLLUTANTS

Bellinger DC. Comparing the population neurodevelopmental burdens associated with children’s exposures to environmental chemicals and other risk factors. Neurotoxicology. 2012;33(4):641-3.

Brent RL, Weitzman M. The current state of knowledge about the effects, risks, and science of children’s environmental exposures. Pediatrics. 2004;113(4 Suppl):1158-66.

Council On Environmental H. Pesticide exposure in children. Pediatrics. 2012;130(6):e1757-63.

Demeneix B. Losing our minds: how environmental pollution impairs human intelligence and mental health. Oxford ; New York: Oxford University Press; 2014. xxiii, 284 pages p.

Deth R, Muratore C, Benzecry J, Power-Charnitsky VA, Waly M. How environmental and genetic factors combine to cause autism: A redox/methylation hypothesis. Neurotoxicology. 2008;29(1):190-201.

Faber S, Zinn GM, Boggess A, Fahrenholz T, Kern JC 2nd, Kingston HM. A cleanroom sleeping environment’s impact on markers of oxidative stress, immune dysregulation, and behavior in children with autism spectrum disorders. BMC Complement Altern Med. 2015;15:71.

Gurunathan S, Robson M, Freeman N, Buckley B, Roy A, Meyer R, et al. Accumulation of chlorpyrifos on residential surfaces and toys accessible to children. Environ Health Perspect. 1998 Jan;106(1):9–16.

Herbert MR, Russo JP, Yang S, Roohi J, Blaxill M, Kahler SG, et al. Autism and environmental genomics. Neurotoxicology. 2006;27(5):671-84.

Hinhumpatch P, Navasumrit P, Chaisatra K, Promvijit J, Mahidol C, Ruchirawat M. Oxidative DNA damage and repair in children exposed to low levels of arsenic in utero and during early childhood: application of salivary and urinary biomarkers. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 2013;273(3):569-79.

Landrigan PJ. Health effects of environmental toxins in deficient housing. Bull N Y Acad Med. 1990;66(5):491-9.

Landrigan PJ, Kimmel CA, Correa A, Eskenazi B. Children’s health and the environment: public health issues and challenges for risk assessment. Environ Health Perspect. 2004;112(2):257-65.

Lanphear BP, Wright RO, Dietrich KN. Environmental neurotoxins. Pediatr Rev. 2005;26(6):191-7; quiz 8.

Laron Z. Interplay between heredity and environment in the recent explosion of type 1 childhood diabetes mellitus. Am J Med Genet. 2002;115(1):4-7.

Levine M, Froberg B, Ruha AM, Burns-Ewald M, Yen M, Claudius IA, et al. Assessing the toxicity and associated costs among pediatric patients admitted with unintentional poisonings of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder drugs in the United States. Clin Toxicol (Phila). 2013;51(3):147-50.

Linde K, Jonas WB, Melchart D, Worku F, Wagner H, Eitel F. Critical review and metaanalysis of serial agitated dilutions in experimental toxicology. Hum Exp Toxicol. 1994;13(7):481-92.

Louis JB, Kisselbach KC, Jr. Indoor air levels of chlordane and heptachlor following termiticide applications. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol. 1987;39(6):911-8.

Miranda ML, Kim D, Reiter J, Overstreet Galeano MA, Maxson P. Environmental contributors to the achievement gap. Neurotoxicology. 2009;30(6):1019-24.

Morse DL, Harrington JM, Housworth J, Landrigan PJ, Kelter A. Arsenic exposure in multiple environmental media in children near a smelter. Clin Toxicol. 1979;14(4):389-99.

Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development. Economic valuation of environmental health risks to children. Paris: Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development; 2006. 310 p. p.

Prescott SL. Early-life environmental determinants of allergic diseases and the wider pandemic of inflammatory noncommunicable diseases. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2013;131(1):23-30.

Rogan WJ, Ragan NB. Evidence of effects of environmental chemicals on the endocrine system in children. Pediatrics. 2003;112(1 Pt 2):247-52.

Sagiv SK, Kalkbrenner AE, Bellinger DC. Of decrements and disorders: assessing impairments in neurodevelopment in prospective studies of environmental toxicant exposures. Environ Health. 2015;14(1):8.

Schmidt MA, Bland JS. Thyroid gland as sentinel: interface between internal and external environment. Altern Ther Health Med. 1997;3(1):78-81.

Shmool JL, Kubzansky LD, Newman OD, Spengler J, Shepard P, Clougherty JE. Social stressors and air pollution across New York City communities: a spatial approach for assessing correlations among multiple exposures. Environ Health. 2014;13:91.

Suarez-Lopez JR, Himes JH, Jacobs DR Jr, Alexander BH, Gunnar MR. Acetylcholinesterase activity and neurodevelopment in boys and girls. Pediatrics. 2013 Dec;132(6):e1649–58.

Trasande L, Boscarino J, Graber N, Falk R, Schechter C, Galvez M, et al. The environment in pediatric practice: a study of New York pediatricians’ attitudes, beliefs, and practices towards children’s environmental health. J Urban Health. 2006;83(4):760-72.

Yousef S, Adem A, Zoubeidi T, Kosanovic M, Mabrouk AA, Eapen V. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and environmental toxic metal exposure in the United Arab Emirates. J Trop Pediatr. 2011;57(6):457-60.

 

ELECTROMAGNETIC FIELD EXPOSURE

Coming soon! This section is being updated.

 

ENDOCRINE DISRUPTORS

Coming soon! This section is being updated.

 

FOOD ADDITIVES

Coming soon! This section is being updated.

 

HEAVY METALS

Alabdali A, Al-Ayadhi L, El-Ansary A. A key role for an impaired detoxification mechanism in the etiology and severity of autism spectrum disorders. Behav Brain Funct. 2014;10:14.

Axelrad DA, Bellinger DC, Ryan LM, Woodruff TJ. Dose-response relationship of prenatal mercury exposure and IQ: an integrative analysis of epidemiologic data. Environ Health Perspect. 2007;115(4):609-15.

Baker EL, Jr., Hayes CG, Landrigan PJ, Handke JL, Leger RT, Housworth WJ, et al. A nationwide survey of heavy metal absorption in children living near primary copper, lead, and zinc smelters. Am J Epidemiol. 1977;106(4):261-73.

Denham M, Schell LM, Deane G, Gallo MV, Ravenscroft J, DeCaprio AP, et al. Relationship of lead, mercury, mirex, dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene, hexachlorobenzene, and polychlorinated biphenyls to timing of menarche among Akwesasne Mohawk girls. Pediatrics. 2005;115(2):e127-34.

Englender SJ, Atwood RG, Landrigan PJ, Clarkson TW, Greenwood MR, Smith JC. Organic mercury exposure from fungicide-contaminated eggs. Arch Environ Health. 1980;35(4):224-8.

Julvez J, Smith GD, Golding J, Ring S, Pourcain BS, Gonzalez JR, et al. Prenatal methylmercury exposure and genetic predisposition to cognitive deficit at age 8 years. Epidemiology. 2013;24(5):643-50.

Kern JK, Geier DA, Adams JB, Geier MR. A biomarker of mercury body-burden correlated with diagnostic domain specific clinical symptoms of autism spectrum disorder. Biometals. 2010 Dec;23(6):1043–51.

Landrigan PJ. Occupational and community exposures to toxic metals: lead, cadmium, mercury and arsenic. West J Med. 1982;137(6):531-9.

Landrigan PJ. Neurologic effects of exposure to lead. J Pediatr. 1979;94(3):504-5.

Landrigan PJ, Baker EL. Exposure of children in heavy metals from smelters: epidemiology and toxic consequences. Environ Res. 1981;25(1):204-24.

Landrigan PJ, Whitworth RH, Baloh RW, Staehling NW, Barthel WF, Rosenblum BF. Neuropsychological dysfunction in children with chronic low-level lead absorption. Lancet. 1975;1(7909):708-12.

Needleman HL, Landrigan PJ. The health effects of low level exposure to lead. Annu Rev Public Health. 1981;2:277-98.

Pizzino G, Bitto A, Interdonato M, Galfo F, Irrera N, Mecchio A, et al. Oxidative stress and DNA repair and detoxification gene expression in adolescents exposed to heavy metals living in the Milazzo-Valle del Mela area (Sicily, Italy). Redox Biol. 2014;2:686-93.

Ratajczak HV. Theoretical aspects of autism: biomarkers–a review. J Immunotoxicol. 2011;8(1):80-94.

Wysowski DK, Landrigan PJ, Ferguson SW, Fontaine RE, Tsongas TA, Porter B. Cadmium exposure in a community near a smelter. Am J Epidemiol. 1978;107(1):27-35.

Yousef S, Adem A, Zoubeidi T, Kosanovic M, Mabrouk AA, Eapen V. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and environmental toxic metal exposure in the United Arab Emirates. J Trop Pediatr. 2011;57(6):457-60.

 

PHARMACEUTICAL SIDE-EFFECTS

Coming soon! This section is being updated.